In 2006,US and Japanese Governments agreed on Roadmap for Realignment Implementation of US bases.This Roadmap includes the reversion of Futenma Air Base and 5 other facilities,after the completion of Futenma Relocation Facility in Henoko,Nago City,and moving of 8,522 Marines,9,000 their dependents from Okinawa to Guam.Futenma issue and Guam realignment are “package”.Japanese Government has been complicit in the construction of new bases in Guam by supplying large public fund($6.09billion) even though the big earthquake,tsunami and nuclear accidents have occurred in Japan after march11 this year.Excuse to pay money,Japanese Government will send more their Self-Defense Forces to Guam for military training.
So much of Okinawans reject the plan of construction of new military base on coral reef of Henoko.Okinawa Pref.Governor Hirokazu Nakaima and Nago City Mayor Susumu Inafuku also refuse to accept a new base anywhere in Okinawa.
Okinawans are against moving of US Marines to Guam and the construction of new bases there because the colonial situation of Guam will be fixed so deeply and the militarization on Guam is against the process of decolonization on UNC-24.
The reduction of bases on Okinawa will promote that of Guam.I think the relationship of Guam and Okinawa is like sisters and frothers.We insist that Guam should be demilitarized on this decolonization process in UN C-24.
I appreciate Former Senator Hope Cristobal and Dr.Lisa Natividad so much for accepting me for a member of Guam delegation and giving a chance to speak in UN C-24.
Joseph Ada(1993)The State of the Colony,Guam Government,
Wakako Higuchi (2001) “The Japanisation Policy for the Chamorros of Guam, 1941-1944”in The Journal of Pacific History,Vol.36,No.1
Okinawa Prefectural government(2011)US Military Base Issues in Okinawa,Okinawa Prefectural Government
Political Status Education Coordinating Commission (ed.) (1996)Issues in Guam's Political Development:The Chamorro Perspective,The Political Status Education Coordinating Commission
R.Rogers(1995)Destiny’s Landfall-A History of Guam,University of Hawaii Press
Pedro Sanchez(1988)Guahan Guam-The History of Our Island- ,Sanchez Publishing House
Ronald Stade(1998)Pacific Passages-World Culture and Local Politics in Guam-,Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology
Robert Underwood(1998)The State of Guam’s Agenda in Washington 1997,The Office of Underwood
YasukatsuMatsushima(2007)Micronesia-the challenge of Islands’ Peoples for Selfgovernance, Waseda University Press(Japanese version)
In 1972,the colonial administration of Okinawa was retransferred from US to Japan.The strong wishs of Okinawans to remove all US bases were ignored.Military bases and economic activities become connected each other in Guam and Okinawa,but almost benefits of base-related economies have gone out of these islands to other places.The military policies on Guam and Okinawa have been decided by US and Japanese Governments unilaterally to ignore these peoples’s claims.So the colonization of Guam and Okinawa has been very clear militarily,politically,economically.
But Chamorros has used international networks for the decolonization by their groups such as OPI-R(Organization of People for Indigenous Rights),Guhan Coalition for Peace and Justice,We are Guahan and Chamorro Nations and so on.Also Okinawans has participated to UN organizations to resolve colonization problems.In 1996 I had participated to UN Working Group on Indigenous Peoples.Until now,Okinawans have taken part in several UN organizations to decolonize,and demilitarize Okinawa.
In 2006, Dr. Deu Deu Dien,a special reporter of UN Commission on Human Rights, came to survey military bases on Okinawa.He reported that Okinawan situation was abnormal and Japanese Government discriminated against Okinawans.In 2010, UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination said that US military base problems on Okinawa are racial discrimination to Okinawans.
3.Towards the Demilitarization of Guam
If US Marines will move from Okinawa to Guam,Chamorro people will face many problems such like Okinawan cases.We must understand military base problems on Okinawa because ‘Build Up’ in Guam is conditioned to that of Okinawa by US and Japanese Governments.
74% of US military bases in Japan have been concentrated in Okinawa which covers only 0.6% of all Japanese territory.Many military bases reside in small and highly populated island.That is why there are so many accidents and crimes committed by US personnels.
We have faced such serious damages as fieldfires and bomb accidents caused by live ammunition practices,planes and helicopters crashes,deafing roar,traffic accidents,destruction of environment and historical sites, indigenous cultural heritages, infringements upon the daily life of the Okinawans and so on.From 1972 to 2010,military related criminal cases have occurred 5,705.From 1972 to 2010,accidents and incidents related to Military training have occurred 1,545.
Two of the most shocking cases are the rape case by 3 US soldiers against a schoolgirl(12years old) in 1995 and the US helicopter crash in 2004 at Okinawa International University.This helicopter belonged to Futenma Air base.
The Japanese Government hasn’t changed the Agreement on the Status of US Armed Forces in Japan in spite of the strong outrage of almost all Okinawans.This Agreement gives the US military personnels the special privileges to refuse handing over suspects to Japanese authority and on-the-spot inspections.
わったーるーちゅー（We are Loochoo)による国連でのステートメントペーパーを３回にわたりご紹介します。
The QUESTION OF GUAM STATEMENT OF WE ARE LOOCHOO By Dr.YASUKATSU MATSUSHIMA Before the UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL COMMITTEE of 24 on DECOLONIZATION 66th Session
Towards the Demilitarizaiton of Guam
21 June 2011
We Are LOOCHOO Dr.Yasukatsu Matsushima 345,Oroku,Naha-city,Okinawa-prefecture,901-0152,Japan Mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
I appreciate for Your Excellency Francisco Carrion-Mena,Chairperson of the Special Committee of 24,members of the Special Committee on Decolonization to give me the opportunity to speak before your Cimmittee.
I am Dr.Yasukatsu Matsushima.an Okinawan.I was born and raised on Okinawa.Okinawa consists of 160 islands in the EastAsia Sea surrounded by Japan, Taiwan, China, Philippines and its population is about 1.4million. I will appeal that the necessity of demilitarization of Guam from the perspective of Okinawa because the militarization of Guam and Okinawa has been linked strongly by US and Japanese Governments.
2.The Brief History of How Guam and Okinawa Share the Colonization
The militarization of Guam is linked with the building of new bases onOkinawa and the moving of 8,522 US Marines,9,000 their dependents from Okinawa to Guam.Japanese Government has paid public funds to make new bases on Guam and its Self-Defense Forces has been training with US Forces on Guam.Why Guam and Okinawa is related militarily by US and Japanese Governments?We should understand the historical background of the colonization of Guam and Okinawa.
As Guam has been controlled by Spain,US,Japan and now US,Okinawa has been under the control of Japan,US and now Japan and US.
In1879,Japanese Government annexed Ryukyu Kingdom with its military invasion and started to rule Okinawa as its colony.The Japanese Government has imposed colonialist policies, prohibiting the Okinawan language in school.Also in Guam, Chamorros had been forced to speak English in school until 1950s. It can be called a cultural genocide.
In 1945,Japanese Government had used Okinawa as a battle ground.The number of the Okinawan fatalities reached around 150 thousand.In1941,immediately after Pearl Harbor, Japanese Forces occupied and controlled Guam until 1944.Many Chamorros had been massacred,killed by the Japanese soldiers and destroyed land of Guam thoroughly.Japanese Government has not done the war reparations for Chamorros until now.
During Pacific War, in Guam a lot of lands of Chamorros had been deprived by US Government to make military bases.Okinawa had been directly under the control of US Military Government. Many lands of Okinawans were taken by US Government with weapons. In 1950s,US Marine Bases had been moved from Japanese Main Islands to Okinawa.Now US Marines will move to Guam.
In 1962,following the United Nations Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples,the Ryukyu Legislature passed a resolution,stating that the US rule over Okinawa violated the principles of self-determination and non-expansion of territories prescribed in the UN Charter.This resolution was sent to all 104member States of the UN at that time.
LISALINDA NATIVIDAD, Chamorro professor at the University of Guam and a member of the Guam Commission on Decolonization, said that, in 2006, the United States had entered into a bilateral agreement with the Government of Japan, which included plans to transfer 8,000 United States Marines from Japan to Guam. That process had occurred without any consultation with Guam leaders or the Chamorro people — a situation that had been made possible by the island’s unresolved political status. Guam’s current colonial condition “set the stage for exploitation” of its lands and the rights of the Chamorro people.
She said that the announced planned military build-up had prompted a return by Guam to the annual sessions of the Special Committee after a nearly 10‑year absence. But despite consecutive years of attendance since 2006, the situation remained unresolved and conditions in Guam were poor. “As you hear the dismal realities of our island home, we ask that you do something different,” she urged the Special Committee, calling on delegates to focus on specific actions that could be taken by the United Nations, and the Special Committee in particular, to bring about changes.
“Militarism has historically been used as the imperial hammer that ensures the suppression of Guam’s colonized peoples,” she said, noting that the application of American militarism in Guam had continued as recently as 2010, when the United States Navy had begun awarding Department of Defence contracts for construction and other projects on the island. Over the years, the United States military presence in Guam and the Federated States of Micronesia had resulted in radiation exposure, environmental devastation and toxic contamination of the islands and their peoples. Nonetheless, Guam residents were still not eligible for compensation through the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of the United States Congress, a fact that continued despite evidence of excessively high rates of rare types of cancer among the Chamorro people.
In light of the current situation, she offered a series of recommendations, including keeping Guam on the list of Non-Self-Governing Territories until the Chamorro people were able to exercise their right to political self-determination. She further recommended that the Special Committee reaffirm and declare that Guam’s militarization plans by the administering Power, the United States, posed an impediment to the exercise of the Chamorros’ rights to self-determination and decolonization. Among other recommendations, she also said that the United Nations should provide financial and technical assistance for an educational campaign in Guam, in the near future, relative to the political status plebiscite.
YASUKATSU MATSUSHIMA, Professor at Ryukoku University in Japan, said that the colonial histories of Guam and his native Okinawa were closely linked. Just as Guam had been historically controlled by Spain, Japan and the United States, Okinawa had been under Japanese and United States control. And just as the Japanese Government had imposed colonialist policies in Okinawa, prohibiting the use of the Okinawan language in schools, Chamorros in Guam had been forced to speak English. Those policies and others like them amounted to a “cultural genocide”. The military policies in Guam and Okinawa had been unilaterally decided by the colonial Powers, ignoring the claims of their residents.
Today, the militarization of Guam was tied to the building of new military bases and the transfer of more than 8,000 United States Marines from Okinawa to Guam. With that movement, the Chamorro people would face many of the same problems that the Okinawan people had faced, including field fires and bomb accidents caused by live ammunition, plane and helicopter crashes, as well as noise pollution, traffic accidents, the destruction of environmental and historical sites and the loss of indigenous cultural heritage. The Okinawan people were against the movement of United States Marines to Guam, as well as the construction of new military bases, as they feared that the island’s colonial situation would become “deeply fixed”. They insisted that Guam be demilitarized in accordance with United Nations decolonization principles and the Special Committee’s processes.
LISA BAZA, Conscious Living, a non-profit organization, recommended that Guam remain on the list of Non-Self-Governing Territories until the Chamorros had an opportunity to exercise their inalienable right to political self-determination. The United Nations should provide financial and technical assistance for an educational campaign that informed all people of Guam about the political status plebiscite, and it should send a visiting mission to observe that event.
More broadly, she recommended that the United Nations adopt a resolution that reflected a case-by-case decolonization plan for each of the Non-Self-Governing Territories to be achieved in the Third Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), in particular, should financially assist Non-Self-Governing Territories in dealing with poverty-related issues caused by their economic dependence on administering Powers. The Organization should also consider revisiting the development of a declaration of rights for indigenous peoples, which would allow colonized voices to be heard.
Guam’s process of self-determination would be revisited with a plebiscite within the next five years, she said. The administering Power, through the Department of the Interior, had pledged funding for education, as the island worked towards that plebiscite, and she asked the Special Committee to implore the administering Power to follow that mandate.
CLARE CALVO, speaking on behalf of Eddie Baza Calvo, Governor of Guam, said: “The people of Guam need your help.” Colonialism had weighed on them for nearly 500 years. The island had suffered over 230 years of Spanish colonial rule, during which the Chamorros had been devastated by disease, war and oppression. After the Spanish-American War, the United States had claimed Guam, and rule had begun under the “Naval Government”. Japan’s foray into imperialism during the Second World War had been especially brutal, when Chamorro women had been raped and men beheaded by the Japanese Imperial Army.
In July 1944, the United States had taken back the island, she continued, and while the Chamorros had been liberated from slavery and war, they were still suppressed under colonialism, and worse, had yet to receive reparations for the atrocities they had suffered. The Chamorros of the Second World War had endured slavery, murder and genocide, yet the United States had been silent on its obligations for war reparations. That silence reinforced the point that Guam could no longer be a colony in perpetuity.
She said the Chamorros had been unable to reach their full socio-economic potential because of their political status. “Now, more than ever, it is important to move forward”, while there were still Chamorros left to express their right to self-determination. She was thankful that the United States, the administering Power, recognized that right. The Obama Administration had agreed to match local funding allocated for decolonization efforts. The Government of Guam was committed to a plebiscite, and she wished to see a vote taken in the next general election or the one thereafter.
Most important was to ensure that Chamorros made an educated decision on their political status, she said, underscoring that “exercising this human right is long overdue”. For far too long, the Chamorro people had been told to be satisfied with a political status that did not respect their wishes first. For far too long, they had dealt with taxation without full representation, quasi-citizenship and partial belonging. She urged the Special Committee to support their human rights and help them become citizens of their own place in this world.
EDWARD ALVAREZ, Executive Director of the Commission on Decolonization of Guam, said his Government would embark on an aggressive campaign to parlay its situation to a national and international audience. Legislation had been introduced to appropriate money for a Chamorro self-determination educational campaign, a programme which the United States Department of the Interior had expressed its intention to fund. Moreover, the Governor aimed to hold a plebiscite in the next five years for the Chamorro people to exercise their right to self-determination.
He said that Guam did not plan to draft a constitution at this time, but rather, it would pursue the resolution of its political status by helping Chamorros exercise their right to self-determination, particularly amid the military build-up. With that, he recommended that a representative from the United States President’s Office facilitate the issue in Congress, as Guam engaged the Departments of the Interior and Defence.
For its part, Guam would reach out to national and international media “to get our story told and message across”, he pledged. It also would seek advocacy from as many groups and celebrities as possible. He also recommended that the United Nations advocate for Guam by pressuring the United States. Along with a national and international media campaign, Guam might request an invitation to the International Court of Justice. “The time has come for all of us to come to grips with what is right and just for the Chamorro people of Guam,” he said.